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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com
Total cost of ownership Linux vs. QNX - Part3

The Linux OS provides for open access to its source code. This has led some to choose Linux as a viable development platform, on the perceived basis that its cost is less than commercial alternatives. To examine this, we present a three-part whitepaper series that closely examines the total cost of ownership of Linux and how that compares to a commercial off-the-shelf realtime operating system like QNX. In Part 3 we examine the challenges of certifying a Linux-based system.
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February 2016
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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com
Total cost of ownership Linux vs. QNX - Part 2

The Linux OS provides for open access to its source code. This has led some to choose Linux as a viable development platform, on the perceived basis that its cost is less than commercial alternatives. To examine this, we present a three-part whitepaper series that closely examines the total cost of ownership of Linux and how that compares to a commercial off-the-shelf realtime operating system like QNX. In Part 2 we examine the costs of maintaining Linux.
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February 2016
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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com
Total cost of ownership Linux vs. QNX - Part1

The Linux OS provides for open access to its source code. This has led some to choose Linux as a viable development platform, on the perceived basis that its cost is less than commercial alternatives. To examine this, we present a three-part whitepaper series that closely examines the total cost of ownership of Linux and how that compares to a commercial off-the-shelf realtime operating system like QNX. In Part 1 we examine upfront costs, selecting the right version, and time to market.
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January 2016
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com


The Dangers of Over-Engineering a Safe System

Attempts to increase dependability of a specific component without considering the question of overall system dependability may lead to the introduction of new problems. We examine the effect on dependability of adding software error detection to a 2oo2 system, consider the benefits and adverse consequences of this addition, and suggest other approaches to improving dependability.
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April 2013
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Yi Zheng
yzheng@qnx.com

Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com

Ten Truths about Building Safe Embedded Software Systems

Obtaining safety certifications and approvals for safety-related systems and the larger systems, devices, components, machinery, and vehicles in which they reside is an arduous and costly undertaking. If the projects developing these systems are to be successful, manufacturers must look beyond the strictly technical challenges, and focus also on the environment and culture needed to develop safe software systems.
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December 2012
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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com

Mark Pitchford
mark.pitchford@ldra.com


Using Dynamic Software Analysis to Support Medical Device Approval

Two key challenges facing medical device software manufacurer are a)demonstrating safety and b)obtaining approval by regulatory agencies. In this paper we look at how dynamic code analysis can support demonstrations of compliance with safety requirements, and key capabilities to look for in dynamic analysis tools. We conclude with tables mapping development activities with requirements in the IEC62304 standard, and a short description of important OS characteristics.
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November 2012
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Which OS for IEC 62304 Medical Systems?

This paper is for anyone who must select an OS for a safety-critical medical system. It provides information to help with estimates of the real cost of choosing a Linux or QNX OS. It lists requirements identified by standards such as IEC 62304, ISO 14971 and IEC 61508, and offers comparative estimates of the effort required to meet these requirements. These estimates are for initial certification and pre-approval, subsequent re-certifications following OS upgrades, and ongoing costs.
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August 2012
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Clear SOUP and COTS Software for Medical Device Development

Medical device manufacturers may be reluctant to use COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) because it implies SOUP (software of uncertain provenance), and thus may compromise device safety and pre-market approval by regulatory agencies. If we make the distinction between opaque SOUP and clear SOUP, that is, SOUP for which source code, fault histories and long in-use histories are available, we will find that COTS software may be the optimal choice for many safety-related medical devices.
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September 2011
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Rick Pitz
sales@certicom.com

Yi Zheng
yzheng@qnx.com

Meeting Security Certification Requirements with Certicom and QNX

To reduce the complexity and costs of its expanding networking and security needs, the U.S. federal government has published Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. In this paper we describe how the QNX Neutrino RTOS and the Certicom Security Builder Government Security Edition (GSE) cryptographic library can help ease the burden of building and delivering FIPS 140-2 compliant software.
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July 2011
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Justin Moon
jmoon@qnx.com

Ben VandenBelt
bvandenbelt@qnx.com

Persistent Publish/Subscribe Messaging in Medical Devices

Many medical devices must bring together a disparate array of hardware and software components, as well as support a sophisticated, multi-layered Human-Machine Interface (HMI). Persistent Publish/Subscribe (PPS) messaging offers versatile, easy-to-use and reliable messaging that simplifies system design and facilitates HMI implementation.
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May 2011
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Justin Moon
jmoon@qnx.com

Somu Vadali
svadali@qnx.com

Choosing an RTOS for Remote-care Medical Devices

Three trends are driving a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of remote-care medical devices entering the market: aging populations in industrialized countries, pressures to reduce health care costs, and a new focus on primary and secondary care. This paper is about choosing an embedded OS for remote-care medical devices. It provides a high-level shopping list of requirements that device manufacturers can use to evaluate OSs they are considering.
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April 2011
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Building Functional Safety into Complex Software Systems, Part II

Proofs that software systems meet standards for functional safety have depended on exhaustive testing. This method is inadequate for todays multi-threaded systems, whose complexity precludes their being treated as deterministic systems in practice.

In Part II of this whitepaper series, we propose how a combination of procedural rigor, statistical testing, and design verification can be used to increase confidence in the functional safety of complex software systems.
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March 2011

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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Building Functional Safety into Complex Software Systems, Part I

Proofs that software systems meet standards for functional safety have depended on exhaustive testing. This method is inadequate for todays multi-threaded systems, whose complexity precludes their being treated as deterministic systems in practice.

In Part I of this whitepaper series we discuss the limits of testing of complex software systems, and some factors that should be weighed when deciding how to build complex software systems that must meet functional safety standards.
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January 2011

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Shree Paranjpe
sparanjpe@qnx.com

Scott Pennock
spennock@qnx.com

Phil Hetherington
phetherington@qnx.com

Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Wideband Audio

Speech processing is transitioning to wider bandwidths. Benefits include increased intelligibility and comprehension, and a better communication experience. High quality, full-duplex Acoustic Echo Cancellation is an integral component of a hands-free speakerphone system. The challenge is to develop a robust Acoustic Echo Canceller that processes full-band audio signals while maintaining low computational complexity and reasonable memory consumption for an affordable telepresence experience.
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December 2010
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Using an IEC 61508-Certified RTOS Kernel for Safety-Critical Systems

This whitepaper presents the characteristics of a safe kernel,and briefly describes the QNX Neutrino RTOS Safe Kernel, which has been certified to conform to IEC 61508 at Safety Integrity Level 3. The paper then describes some important support requirements for developing applications with safe kernels: a comprehensive tool suite, documentation and training.
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September 2010
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Scott Pennock
spennock@qnx.com

Phil Hetherington
phetherington@qnx.com

Wideband Speech Communications for Automotive: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Wideband (50-7000 Hz) speech communications brings improvements over traditional narrowband (300-3400 Hz) communications: it can increase intelligibility, reduce driver distraction, enable spatial auditory displays, and more. Unfortunately, wideband communications also has some drawbacks. This paper reviews some of the main benefits, challenges and unresolved issues with wideband speech communications in an automotive environment.
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July 2010
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Shiv Nagarajan
shiv@qnx.com
Processor Affinity or Bound Multiprocessing: Easing the Migration to Embedded Multicore Processing

Migrating systems designed for single core processors to multicore environments is still a challenge. Bound multiprocessing (BMP) can help with these migrations. It improves SMP processor affinity. It allows developers to bind all threads (including dynamically created threads) in a process or even a subsystem to a specific processor without code changes.
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June 2010
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Protecting Applications Against Heisenbugs

Virtually-synchronous replication provides a mechanism that allows developers of mission- and safety-critical applications to reduce the impact of elusive and non-reproducible bugscommonly known as Heisenbugsin their applications.
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February 2010
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Fault Tree Analysis with Bayesian Belief Networks for Safety-Critical Software

The flexibility of Bayesian Belief Networks makes them particularly suitable for presenting a quantified safety case incorporating hard and soft evidence. This paper describes their application to one component of an overall safety assessment of the QNX Neutrino microkernel.
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January 2010
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Paul Leroux
paull@qnx.com
Using Resource Partitioning to Build Secure, Survivable Embedded Systems

By providing guaranteed access to system resources, partitioning can ensure the availability of critical services, even when your system experiences a heavy processing load or a denial-of-service attack.
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April 2009
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Kerry Johnson
kjohnson@qnx.com
Software Optimization Techniques for Multi-Core Processors

This paper provides examples of multicore optimization techniques and discusses how developers can use visualization tools to characterize multicore behavior and measure performance improvements. The paper explores how developers can use threading models to create multiple concurrent tasks and parallel processing; it also discusses how to minimize lock contention by using mutexes to engineer the optimal level of lock granularity.
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February 2008
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Other whitepaper topics: Recent, Automotive, German Whitepapers, HMI + Graphics, Industrial, Medical, Multimedia + Acoustics, Networking, Operating Systems, Security + Defense, Safe Systems, Tools