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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com
Total cost of ownership Linux vs. QNX - Part3

The Linux OS provides for open access to its source code. This has led some to choose Linux as a viable development platform, on the perceived basis that its cost is less than commercial alternatives. To examine this, we present a three-part whitepaper series that closely examines the total cost of ownership of Linux and how that compares to a commercial off-the-shelf realtime operating system like QNX. In Part 3 we examine the challenges of certifying a Linux-based system.
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February 2016
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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com
Total cost of ownership Linux vs. QNX - Part 2

The Linux OS provides for open access to its source code. This has led some to choose Linux as a viable development platform, on the perceived basis that its cost is less than commercial alternatives. To examine this, we present a three-part whitepaper series that closely examines the total cost of ownership of Linux and how that compares to a commercial off-the-shelf realtime operating system like QNX. In Part 2 we examine the costs of maintaining Linux.
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February 2016
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Chris Ault
cault@qnx.com
Total cost of ownership Linux vs. QNX - Part1

The Linux OS provides for open access to its source code. This has led some to choose Linux as a viable development platform, on the perceived basis that its cost is less than commercial alternatives. To examine this, we present a three-part whitepaper series that closely examines the total cost of ownership of Linux and how that compares to a commercial off-the-shelf realtime operating system like QNX. In Part 1 we examine upfront costs, selecting the right version, and time to market.
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January 2016
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com


The Dangers of Over-Engineering a Safe System

Attempts to increase dependability of a specific component without considering the question of overall system dependability may lead to the introduction of new problems. We examine the effect on dependability of adding software error detection to a 2oo2 system, consider the benefits and adverse consequences of this addition, and suggest other approaches to improving dependability.
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April 2013
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Yi Zheng
yzheng@qnx.com

Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com

Ten Truths about Building Safe Embedded Software Systems

Obtaining safety certifications and approvals for safety-related systems and the larger systems, devices, components, machinery, and vehicles in which they reside is an arduous and costly undertaking. If the projects developing these systems are to be successful, manufacturers must look beyond the strictly technical challenges, and focus also on the environment and culture needed to develop safe software systems.
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December 2012
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Grant Courville
gcourville@qnx.com
Choosing an OS for Embedded Train Control Systems

Trains are no longer run by men in overalls with lantern signals. They are controlled by software in embedded systems. In this whitepaper we look at some requirements of this software and discuss OS characteristics that support these requirements, in particular where real-time performance is needed and why, the importance of the OS for certifications to standards such as the EN 5012x series and IEC 61508, the OS architecture, and some OS features that support system dependability.
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October 2012
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Ben VandenBelt
bvandenbelt@qnx.com
Building Embedded Industrial Applications with PPS

A Persistent Publish/Subscribe (PPS) messaging model is an excellent choice for embedded industrial systems which must integrate many disparate devices and components, as well as support a sophisticated Human-Machine Interface (HMI). PPS messaging simplifies the design of these systems and facilitates implementation of HMIs built with disparate technologies, such as HTML5, OpenGL ES, Qt, Elektrobit Guide or Crank Storyboard.
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September 2011
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Building Functional Safety into Complex Software Systems, Part II

Proofs that software systems meet standards for functional safety have depended on exhaustive testing. This method is inadequate for todays multi-threaded systems, whose complexity precludes their being treated as deterministic systems in practice.

In Part II of this whitepaper series, we propose how a combination of procedural rigor, statistical testing, and design verification can be used to increase confidence in the functional safety of complex software systems.
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March 2011

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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Building Functional Safety into Complex Software Systems, Part I

Proofs that software systems meet standards for functional safety have depended on exhaustive testing. This method is inadequate for todays multi-threaded systems, whose complexity precludes their being treated as deterministic systems in practice.

In Part I of this whitepaper series we discuss the limits of testing of complex software systems, and some factors that should be weighed when deciding how to build complex software systems that must meet functional safety standards.
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January 2011

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Shree Paranjpe
sparanjpe@qnx.com

Scott Pennock
spennock@qnx.com

Phil Hetherington
phetherington@qnx.com

Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Wideband Audio

Speech processing is transitioning to wider bandwidths. Benefits include increased intelligibility and comprehension, and a better communication experience. High quality, full-duplex Acoustic Echo Cancellation is an integral component of a hands-free speakerphone system. The challenge is to develop a robust Acoustic Echo Canceller that processes full-band audio signals while maintaining low computational complexity and reasonable memory consumption for an affordable telepresence experience.
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December 2010
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Using an IEC 61508-Certified RTOS Kernel for Safety-Critical Systems

This whitepaper presents the characteristics of a safe kernel,and briefly describes the QNX Neutrino RTOS Safe Kernel, which has been certified to conform to IEC 61508 at Safety Integrity Level 3. The paper then describes some important support requirements for developing applications with safe kernels: a comprehensive tool suite, documentation and training.
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September 2010
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Scott Pennock
spennock@qnx.com

Phil Hetherington
phetherington@qnx.com

Wideband Speech Communications for Automotive: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Wideband (50-7000 Hz) speech communications brings improvements over traditional narrowband (300-3400 Hz) communications: it can increase intelligibility, reduce driver distraction, enable spatial auditory displays, and more. Unfortunately, wideband communications also has some drawbacks. This paper reviews some of the main benefits, challenges and unresolved issues with wideband speech communications in an automotive environment.
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July 2010
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Protecting Applications Against Heisenbugs

Virtually-synchronous replication provides a mechanism that allows developers of mission- and safety-critical applications to reduce the impact of elusive and non-reproducible bugscommonly known as Heisenbugsin their applications.
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February 2010
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Chris Hobbs
chobbs@qnx.com
Fault Tree Analysis with Bayesian Belief Networks for Safety-Critical Software

The flexibility of Bayesian Belief Networks makes them particularly suitable for presenting a quantified safety case incorporating hard and soft evidence. This paper describes their application to one component of an overall safety assessment of the QNX Neutrino microkernel.
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January 2010
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Andy Gryc
agryc@qnx.com
Synchronizing Content from Removable Digital Media

To analyze and present metadata, such as song title or artist, a multimedia system uses metadata synchronization. This paper explores several synchronization techniques,and examines techniques for synchronizing metadata from iPods, using either the traditional iPod Access Protocol over serial/USB links, or the newer authentication IC approach. Finally, this paper discusses techniques of data persistence, with a focus on managing the reinsertion of previously inserted media.
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April 2009
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Paul Leroux
paull@qnx.com
Using Resource Partitioning to Build Secure, Survivable Embedded Systems

By providing guaranteed access to system resources, partitioning can ensure the availability of critical services, even when your system experiences a heavy processing load or a denial-of-service attack.
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April 2009
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Kerry Johnson
kjohnson@qnx.com
Using Time Partitioning to Ensure Guaranteed Access to Industrial Control Systems

An "always on" HMI is a key requirement for many industrial control systems. Nonetheless, the HMI can become unresponsive or unusable under heavy CPU loads. This paper explores how system designers and developers can use CPU time partitioning to prevent this problem and guarantee both local and remote operator access. With time partitioning, developers and system designers can allocate a guaranteed portion of CPU time to each software subsystem, regardless of system load.
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February 2008
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Paul Leroux
paull@qnx.com
3D Graphics: Adding a New Dimension to Your Embedded System

As a vendor-neutral, multi-platform API, OpenGL ES lets developers reuse 3D code in new projects or across an entire product family. An OpenGL ES application can run on multiple graphics chips and operating systems; it can also migrate from a low-cost system that uses software rendering to a more expensive system that uses a 3D acceleration chip. Better yet, code developed in OpenGL ES can subsequently migrate to a high-end system that uses full OpenGL.
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February 2007
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Other whitepaper topics: Recent, Automotive, German Whitepapers, HMI + Graphics, Industrial, Medical, Multimedia + Acoustics, Networking, Operating Systems, Security + Defense, Safe Systems, Tools