Heartbeating clients (liveness detection)

Updated: May 06, 2022

Sometimes components become unavailable not because of the occurrence of a specific “bad” event, but because the components become unresponsive by getting stuck somewhere to the extent that the service they provide becomes effectively unavailable.

One example of this is when a process or a collection of processes/threads enters a state of deadlock or starvation, where none or only some of the involved processes can make any useful progress. Such situations are often difficult to pinpoint since they occur quite randomly.

You can have your clients assert “liveness” properties by actively sending heartbeats to a HAM. When a process deadlocks (or starves) and makes no progress, it will no longer heartbeat, and the HAM will automatically detect this condition and take corrective action.

The corrective action can range from simply terminating the offending application to restarting it and also delivering notifications about its state to other components that depend on the safe and correct functioning of this component. If necessary, a HAM can restart those other components as well.

We can demonstrate this condition by showing a simple process that has two threads that use mutual-exclusion locks incorrectly (by a design flaw), which causes them on occasion to enter a state of deadlock — each of the threads holds a resource that the other wants.

Essentially, each thread runs through a segment of code that involves the use of two mutexes.

Thread 1                             Thread 2

...                                  ...
while true                           while true
  do                                 do
    obtain lock a                      obtain lock b
    (compute section1)                   (compute section1)
    obtain lock b                        obtain lock a
        (compute section2)                 (compute section2)
    release lock b                       release lock a
    release lock a                     release lock b
done                                 done
...                                  ...

The code segments for each thread are shown below. The only difference between the two is the order in which the locks are obtained. The two threads deadlock upon execution, quite randomly; the exact moment of deadlock is related to the lengths of the “compute sections” of the two threads.

/* mutexdeadlock.c */

#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <sys/neutrino.h>
#include <sys/procfs.h>
#include <sys/procmgr.h>
#include <ha/ham.h>

pthread_mutex_t mutex_a = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;
pthread_mutex_t mutex_b = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;

FILE *logfile;
pthread_t  threadID;
int doheartbeat=0;

#define COMPUTE_DELAY 100

void *func1(void *arg)
{
    int id;
    /* obtain the two locks in the order 
       a -> b 
       perform some computation and then 
       release the locks ...
       do this continuously 
    */

    id = pthread_self();
    while (1) {
        delay(85); /* delay to let the other one go */
        if (doheartbeat)
            ham_heartbeat();
        pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex_a);
        fprintf(logfile, "Thread 1: Obtained lock a\n");
        fprintf(logfile, "Thread 1: Waiting for lock b\n");
        pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex_b);
        fprintf(logfile, "Thread 1: Obtained lock b\n");
        fprintf(logfile, "Thread 1: Performing computation\n");
        delay(rand()%COMPUTE_DELAY+5); /* delay for computation */
        fprintf(logfile, "Thread 1: Unlocking lock b\n");
        pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex_b);
        fprintf(logfile, "Thread 1: Unlocking lock a\n");
        pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex_a);
    }
    return(NULL);
}

void *func2(void *arg)
{
    
    int id;
    /* obtain the two locks in the order 
       b -> a 
       perform some computation and then 
       release the locks ...
       do this continuously 
    */

    id = pthread_self();
    while (1) {
        delay(25);
        if (doheartbeat)
            ham_heartbeat();
        pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex_b);
        fprintf(logfile, "\tThread 2: Obtained lock b\n");
        fprintf(logfile, "\tThread 2: Waiting for lock a\n");
        pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex_a);
        fprintf(logfile, "\tThread 2: Obtained lock a\n");
        fprintf(logfile, "\tThread 2: Performing computation\n");
        delay(rand()%COMPUTE_DELAY+5); /* delay for computation */
        fprintf(logfile, "\tThread 2: Unlocking lock a\n");
        pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex_a);
        fprintf(logfile, "\tThread 2: Unlocking lock b\n");
        pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex_b);
    }
    return(NULL);
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    pthread_attr_t attrib;
    struct sched_param param;
    ham_entity_t *ehdl;
    ham_condition_t *chdl;
    ham_action_t *ahdl;
    char c;
    int prio;
    
    logfile = stderr;
    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:l" )) != -1 ) {
        switch(c) {
            case 'f': /* log file */
                logfile = fopen(optarg, "w");
                break;
            case 'l': /* do liveness heartbeating */
                if (access("/proc/ham",F_OK) == 0)
                    doheartbeat=1;
                break;
         }
    }

    setbuf(logfile, NULL);
    srand(time(NULL));
    fprintf(logfile, "Creating separate competing compute thread\n");    

    /* Get our priority. */
    if (SchedGet( 0, 0, &param) != -1)
    {
       prio = param.sched_priority;
    }
    else
    {
       prio = 10;
    }

    pthread_attr_init (&attrib);
    pthread_attr_setinheritsched (&attrib, PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_SCHED);
    pthread_attr_setschedpolicy (&attrib, SCHED_RR);
    param.sched_priority = prio;
    pthread_attr_setschedparam (&attrib, &param);

    if (doheartbeat) {
        /* attach to ham */
        ehdl = ham_attach_self("mutex-deadlock",1000000000UL,5 ,5, 0);
        chdl = ham_condition(ehdl, CONDHBEATMISSEDHIGH, "heartbeat-missed-high", 0);
        ahdl = ham_action_execute(chdl, "terminate", 
                               "/proc/boot/mutex-deadlock-heartbeat.sh", 0);
    }
    /* create competitor thread */
    pthread_create (&threadID, &attrib, func1, NULL);
    pthread_detach(threadID);
    
    func2(NULL);

    exit(0);
}

Upon execution, what we see is:

  1. Starting two-threaded process.

    The threads will execute as described earlier, but will eventually deadlock. We'll wait for a reasonable amount of time (a few seconds) until they do end in deadlock. The threads write a simple execution log in /dev/shmem/mutex-deadlock.log.

  2. Waiting for them to deadlock.

    Here's the current state of the threads in process 73746:

         pid tid name               prio STATE       Blocked
       73746   1 oot/mutex-deadlock  10r MUTEX       73746-02 #-21474
       73746   2 oot/mutex-deadlock  10r MUTEX       73746-01 #-21474
    

    And here's the tail from the threads' log file:

    Thread 2: Obtained lock b
    Thread 2: Waiting for lock a
    Thread 2: Obtained lock a
    Thread 2: Performing computation
    Thread 2: Unlocking lock a
    Thread 2: Unlocking lock b
    Thread 2: Obtained lock b
    Thread 2: Waiting for lock a
    Thread 1: Obtained lock a
    Thread 1: Waiting for lock b
    
  3. Extracting core current process information:
    /tmp/mutex-deadlock.core:
     processor=ARM num_cpus=2
      cpu 1 cpu=602370 name=604e speed=299
      flags=0xc0000001 FPU MMU EAR
      cpu 2 cpu=602370 name=604e speed=299
       flags=0xc0000001 FPU MMU EAR
     cyc/sec=16666666 tod_adj=999522656000000000 nsec=5190771360840 inc=999960
     boot=999522656 epoch=1970 intr=-2147483648
     rate=600000024 scale=-16 load=16666
       MACHINE="mtx604-smp" HOSTNAME="localhost"
     hwflags=0x000004
     pretend_cpu=0 init_msr=36866
     pid=73746 parent=49169 child=0 pgrp=73746 sid=1
     flags=0x000300 umask=0 base_addr=0x48040000 init_stack=0x4803fa20
     ruid=0 euid=0 suid=0  rgid=0 egid=0 sgid=0
     ign=0000000006801000 queue=ff00000000000000 pending=0000000000000000
     fds=4 threads=2 timers=0 chans=1
     thread 1 REQUESTED
      ip=0xfe32f838 sp=0x4803f920 stkbase=0x47fbf000 stksize=528384
      state=MUTEX flags=0 last_cpu=1 timeout=00000000
      pri=10 realpri=10 policy=RR
     thread 2
      ip=0xfe32f838 sp=0x47fbef80 stkbase=0x47f9e000 stksize=135168
      state=MUTEX flags=4020000 last_cpu=2 timeout=00000000
      pri=10 realpri=10 policy=RR
    

The processes are deadlocked, with each process holding one lock and waiting for the other.