Directory links

Although you can't create hard links to directories, each directory has two hard-coded links already built in.

The filename "dot" refers to the current directory; "dot dot" refers to the previous (or parent) directory in the hierarchy.

Note that if there's no predecessor, "dot dot" also refers to the current directory. For example, the "dot dot" entry of / is simply /; you can't go further up the path.

Note: There's no POSIX requirement for a filesystem to include . or .. entries; some filesystems, including flash filesystems and /dev/shmem, don't.