Spawn a child process, given a list of arguments and an environment


#include <process.h>

int spawnle( int mode, 
             const char * path, 
             const char * arg0, 
             const char * arg1..., 
             const char * argn, 
             const char * envp[] );


How you want to load the child process, and how you want the parent program to behave after the child program is initiated:
  • P_WAIT — load the child program into available memory, execute it, and make the parent program resume execution after the child process ends.
  • P_NOWAIT — execute the parent program concurrently with the new child process.
  • P_NOWAITO — execute the parent program concurrently with the new child process. You can't use wait() to obtain the exit code.
  • P_OVERLAY — replace the parent program with the child program in memory and execute the child. No return is made to the parent program. This is equivalent to calling the appropriate exec*() function.
The full path name of the executable.
arg0, ... argn, NULL
The arguments that you want to pass to the new process. You must pass at least arg0, which by convention is a pointer to the name of the new child process, and can't be NULL. You must terminate the list with an argument of NULL.
NULL, or a pointer to an array of character pointers, each pointing to a string that defines an environment variable. The array is terminated with a NULL pointer. Each pointer points to a character string of the form:

that's used to define an environment variable.



Use the -l c option to qcc to link against this library. This library is usually included automatically.


The spawnle() function creates and executes a new child process, named in path with NULL-terminated list of arguments in arg0 … argn and with the environment specified in envp. This function calls spawnve().

  • In order to create a child process, your process must have the PROCMGR_AID_SPAWN ability enabled. For more information, see procmgr_ability().
  • If the new child process is a shell script, the first line must start with #!, followed by the path of the program to run to interpret the script, optionally followed by one argument. The script must also be marked as executable. For more information, see "The first line" in the Writing Shell Scripts chapter of the Neutrino User's Guide.

The spawnle() function isn't a POSIX 1003.1 function, and isn't guaranteed to behave the same on all operating systems. It builds argv[ ] and envp[ ] arrays before calling spawn(). For greater portability, use posix_spawn().

Most of the spawn*() functions do a lot of work before a message is sent to procnto:

How the spawn functions are related spawn() spawnve() spawnl() spawnv() spawnle() spawnp() spawnvpe() spawnlpe() spawnvp() spawnlp()

Arguments are passed to the child process by supplying one or more pointers to character strings as arguments. These character strings are concatenated with spaces inserted to separate the arguments to form one argument string for the child process.

If envp is NULL, the child process inherits the environment of the parent process. The new process can access its environment by using the environ global variable (found in <unistd.h>).

Note: A parent/child relationship doesn't imply that the child process dies when the parent process dies.


The spawnle() function's return value depends on the mode argument:

mode Return value
P_WAIT The exit status of the child process. For information about macros that extract information from this status, see "Status macros" in the documentation for wait().
P_NOWAIT The process ID of the child process. To get the exit status for a P_NOWAIT process, you must use the waitpid() function, giving it this process ID.
P_NOWAITO The process ID of the child process, or 0 if the process is being started on a remote node. You can't get the exit status of a P_NOWAITO process.

If an error occurs, -1 is returned (errno is set).


The number of bytes used by the argument list or environment list of the new child process is greater than ARG_MAX bytes.
Search permission is denied for a directory listed in the path prefix of the new child process or the new child process's file doesn't have the execute bit set.
Insufficient resources available to create the child process.
An error occurred duplicating open file descriptors to the new process.
The mode is P_WAIT, and the spawned process terminated before the call to waitpid() was completed.
One of the buffers specified in the function call is invalid.
The function was interrupted by a signal.
An argument is invalid (e.g. arg0 is NULL, or the value of mode isn't valid).
Too many levels of symbolic links or prefixes.
Insufficient resources available to load the new executable image or to remap file descriptors in the child process.
The length of path exceeds PATH_MAX or a pathname component is longer than NAME_MAX.
The file identified by the path argument is empty, or one or more components of the pathname of the child process don't exist.
The child process's file has the correct permissions, but isn't in the correct format for an executable.
Insufficient memory available to create the child process.
The spawnle() function isn't implemented for the filesystem specified in path.
A component of the path prefix of the child process isn't a directory.
The calling process doesn't have the required permission (see procmgr_ability()), or an underlying call to mmap() failed because it attempted to set PROT_EXEC for a region of memory covered by an untrusted memory-mapped file.
The text file that you're trying to execute is busy (e.g. it might be open for writing).


Run myprog as if the user had typed:

myprog ARG1 ARG2

at the command-line:

#include <stddef.h>
#include <process.h>

char *env_list[] = { "SOURCE=MYDATA",

spawnle( P_WAIT, "myprog",
    "myprog", "ARG1", "ARG2", NULL,
     env_list );

The program is found if myprog is in the current working directory. The environment for the child program consists of the three environment variables SOURCE, TARGET and lines.



Cancellation point Read the Caveats
Interrupt handler No
Signal handler No
Thread Yes


If mode is P_WAIT, this function is a cancellation point.