Scheduling and the real world

So far we've talked about scheduling policies and thread states, but we haven't said much yet about why and when things are rescheduled. There's a common misconception that rescheduling just "occurs," without any real causes. Actually, this is a useful abstraction during design! But it's important to understand the conditions that cause rescheduling. Recall the diagram "Scheduling roadmap" (in the "The kernel's role" section).

Rescheduling occurs only because of: