Network-distributed message passing

Suppose we want to change our example above to talk to a different node on the network. You might think that we'll have to invoke special function calls to "get networked." Here's the network version's code:

#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>

main (void)
    int     fd;

    fd = open ("/net/wintermute/home/rk/filename", O_WRONLY);
    write (fd, "This is message passing\n", 24);
    close (fd);

    return (EXIT_SUCCESS);

You're right if you think the code is almost the same in both versions. It is.

In a traditional OS, the C library open() calls into the kernel, which looks at the filename and says "oops, this is on a different node." The kernel then calls into the network filesystem (NFS) code, which figures out where /net/wintermute/home/rk/filename actually is. Then, NFS calls into the network driver and sends a message to the kernel on node wintermute, which then repeats the process that we described in our original example. Note that in this case, there are really two filesystems involved; one is the NFS client filesystem, and one is the remote filesystem. Unfortunately, depending on the implementation of the remote filesystem and NFS, certain operations may not work as expected (e.g., file locking) due to incompatibilities.

Under Neutrino, the C library open() creates the same message that it would have sent to the local filesystem and sends it to the filesystem on node wintermute. In the local and remote cases, the exact same filesystem is used.

This is another fundamental characteristic of Neutrino: network-distributed operations are essentially "free," as the work to decouple the functionality requirements of the clients from the services provided by the servers is already done, by virtue of message passing.

On a traditional kernel there's a "double standard" where local services are implemented one way, and remote (network) services are implemented in a totally different way.