# Collation sequences: Examples

The examples below identify (in comments) the collation sequences used to determine the results of the text comparisons performed in the various SQL statements. Note that a text comparison may not be required and no collation sequence used in the case of NUMERIC, BLOB, or NULL values.

```CREATE TABLE t1(
x INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
a,                 /* collating sequence BINARY */
b COLLATE BINARY,  /* collating sequence BINARY */
c COLLATE RTRIM,   /* collating sequence RTRIM  */
d COLLATE NOCASE   /* collating sequence NOCASE */
);

/* Text comparison a=b is performed using the BINARY sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE a = b ORDER BY x;
--result 1 2 3

/* Text comparison a=b is performed using the RTRIM sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE a = b COLLATE RTRIM ORDER BY x;
--result 1 2 3 4

/* Text comparison d=a is performed using the NOCASE sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE d = a ORDER BY x;
--result 1 2 3 4

/* Text comparison a=d is performed using the BINARY sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE a = d ORDER BY x;
--result 1 4

/* Text comparison 'abc'=c is performed using the RTRIM sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE 'abc' = c ORDER BY x;
--result 1 2 3

/* Text comparison c='abc' is performed using the RTRIM sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE c = 'abc' ORDER BY x;
--result 1 2 3

/* Grouping is performed using the NOCASE sequence (Values
** 'abc', 'ABC', and 'Abc' are placed in the same group). */
SELECT count(*) FROM t1 GROUP BY d ORDER BY 1;
--result 4

/* Grouping is performed using the BINARY sequence.  'abc' and
** 'ABC' and 'Abc' form different groups */
SELECT count(*) FROM t1 GROUP BY (d || '') ORDER BY 1;
--result 1 1 2

/* Sorting or column c is performed using the RTRIM sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 ORDER BY c, x;
--result 4 1 2 3

/* Sorting of (c||'') is performed using the BINARY sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 ORDER BY (c||''), x;
--result 4 2 3 1

/* Sorting of column c is performed using the NOCASE sequence. */
SELECT x FROM t1 ORDER BY c COLLATE NOCASE, x;
--result 2 4 3 1
```