Using the librcheck library

The librcheck library provides the capabilities for detecting and reporting errors. It's available when you link your program with the -lrcheck option.

Another way to use the librcheck library is to use the LD_PRELOAD capability to the dynamic loader. The LD_PRELOAD environment variable lets you specify libraries to load before any other library in the system. In this case, set the LD_PRELOAD variable as follows: 

For example: ./my_program

By default, the librcheck library provides a minimal level of checking. When an allocation or release request is performed, the library checks only the immediate block under consideration and its neighbors, looking for sources of heap corruption.

Additional checking and more informative error reporting can be done by using additional options provided by the librcheck library. The mallopt() function provides control over the types of checking performed by the library. In addition to reporting the file and line information about the caller when an error is detected, the error-reporting mechanism prints out the file and line information that was associated with the allocation of the offending heap buffer.

To control the use of the librcheck library, you need to include a different header file, <rcheck/malloc.h>. If you want to use any of the additional mallopt() commands that this header file declares, make sure that you link your application with librcheck; the libc version of mallopt() gives an error of EINVAL for these additional commands.

In addition, you may want to add an exit handler that provides a dump of leaked memory, and initialization code that turns on a reasonable level of checking for the debug variant of the program.

The librcheck library keeps additional information in the header of each heap buffer, including doubly-linked lists of all allocated blocks, file, line, and other debug information, flags, and a CRC of the header. The allocation policies and configuration are identical to the normal memory allocation routines except for the additional internal overhead imposed by the librcheck library. This allows the librcheck library to perform checks without altering the size of blocks requested by the program. Such manipulation could result in an alteration of the behavior of the program with respect to the allocator, yielding different results when linked against the librcheck library.

All allocated blocks are integrated into a number of allocation chains associated with allocated regions of memory kept by the allocator in arenas or blocks. The librcheck library has intimate knowledge about the internal structures of the allocator, allowing it to use short cuts to find the correct heap buffer associated with any pointer, resorting to a lookup on the appropriate allocation chain only when necessary. This minimizes the performance penalty associated with validating pointers, but it's still significant.

The time and space overheads imposed by the librcheck library are too great to make it suitable for use as a production library, but are manageable enough to allow them to be used during the test phase of development and during program maintenance.

What's checked?

The librcheck library provides a minimal level of checking by default. This includes a check of the integrity of the allocation chain at the point of the local heap buffer on every allocation request. In addition, the flags and CRC of the header are checked for integrity. When the library can locate the neighboring heap buffers, it also checks their integrity. There are also checks specific to each type of allocation request that are done. Call-specific checks are described according to the type of call below.

You can enable additional checks by using the mallopt() call. For more information on the types of checking, and the sources of heap corruption that can be detected, see Controlling the level of checking.”

Allocating memory

When a heap buffer is allocated using any of the heap-allocation routines, the heap buffer is added to the allocation chain for the arena or block within the heap that the heap buffer was allocated from. At this time, any problems detected in the allocation chain for the arena or block are reported. After successfully inserting the allocated buffer in the allocation chain, the previous and next buffers in the chain are also checked for consistency.

Reallocating memory

When an attempt is made to resize a buffer through a call to the realloc() function, the pointer is checked for validity if it's a non-NULL value. If it's valid, the header of the heap buffer is checked for consistency. If the buffer is large enough to satisfy the request, the buffer header is modified, and the call returns. If a new buffer is required to satisfy the request, memory allocation is performed to obtain a new buffer large enough to satisfy the request with the same consistency checks being applied as in the case of memory allocation described above. The original buffer is then released.

If fill-area boundary checking is enabled (described in the Controlling the level of checking section), the guard code checks are also performed on the allocated buffer before it's actually resized. If a new buffer is used, the guard code checks are done just before releasing the old buffer.

Releasing memory

This includes, but isn't limited to, checking to ensure that the pointer provided to a free() request is correct and points to an allocated heap buffer. Guard code checks may also be performed on release operations to allow fill-area boundary checking.