Create a table
CREATE [TEMP | TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] [database-name.] table-name ( column-def [, column-def]* [, constraint]* ) CREATE [TEMP | TEMPORARY] TABLE [database-name.] table-name AS select-statement column-def = name [type] [[CONSTRAINT name] column-constraint]* type = typename | typename ( number ) | typename ( number , number ) column-constraint = NOT NULL [ conflict-clause ] | PRIMARY KEY [sort-order] [ conflict-clause ] [AUTOINCREMENT] | UNIQUE [ conflict-clause ] | CHECK ( expr ) | DEFAULT value | COLLATE collation-name constraint = PRIMARY KEY ( column-list ) [ conflict-clause ] | UNIQUE ( column-list ) [ conflict-clause ] | CHECK ( expr ) [ conflict-clause ] conflict-clause = ON CONFLICT conflict-algorithm
A CREATE TABLE statement is followed by the name of a new table and a parenthesized list of column definitions and constraints. The table name can be either an identifier or a string. Tables names that begin with sqlite_ are reserved for use by the engine.
Each column definition is the name of the column followed by the datatype for that column, then one or more optional column constraints. The datatype for the column does not restrict what data may be put in that column. See the chapter Datatypes in QDB for additional information. The UNIQUE constraint causes an index to be created on the specified columns. This index must contain unique keys. The COLLATE clause specifies what text-collating function to use when comparing text entries for the column. The built-in BINARY collating function is used by default.
The DEFAULT constraint specifies a default value to use when doing an INSERT. The value may be NULL, a string constant or a number. The default value may also be one of the special case-independant keywords CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. If the value is NULL, a string constant or number, it is literally inserted into the column whenever an INSERT statement that does not specify a value for the column is executed.
If the value is CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, then the current UTC date and/or time is inserted into the columns. For CURRENT_TIME, the format is HH:MM:SS. For CURRENT_DATE, the format is YYYY-MM-DD. The format for CURRENT_TIMESTAMP is YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.
Specifying a PRIMARY KEY normally just creates a UNIQUE index on the corresponding columns. However, if primary key is on a single column that has datatype INTEGER, then that column is used internally as the actual key of the B-Tree for the table. This means that the column may only hold unique integer values. (Except for this one case, QDB ignores the datatype specification of columns and allows any kind of data to be put in a column regardless of its declared datatype.)
If a table does not have an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column, then the B-Tree key will be a automatically generated integer. The B-Tree key for a row can always be accessed using one of the special names ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_. This is true regardless of whether or not there is an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY. An INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column can also include the keyword AUTOINCREMENT. The AUTOINCREMENT keyword modifies the way that B-Tree keys are automatically generated. Additional detail on automatic B-Tree key generation is available separately.
According to the SQL standard, PRIMARY KEY should imply NOT NULL. Unfortunately, due to a long-standing coding oversight, this is not the case in SQLite. SQLite allows NULL values in a PRIMARY KEY column. We could change SQLite to conform to the standard (and we might do so in the future), but by the time the oversight was discovered, SQLite was in such wide use that we feared breaking legacy code if we fixed the problem. So for now we have chosen to contain allowing NULLs in PRIMARY KEY columns. Developers should be aware, however, that we may change SQLite to conform to the SQL standard in future and should design new programs accordingly.
If the TEMP or TEMPORARY keyword is used, then the created table is visible only within that same database connection and is automatically deleted when the database connection is closed. Any indexes created on a temporary table are also temporary. Temporary tables and indexes are stored in a separate file distinct from the main database file.
If a database-name is specified, then the table is created in the named database. It is an error to specify both a database-name and the TEMP keyword, unless the database-name is temp. If no database name is specified, and the TEMP keyword is not present, the table is created in the main database.
The optional conflict-clause following each constraint allows the specification of an alternative default constraint conflict resolution algorithm for that constraint. The default is ABORT. Different constraints within the same table may have different default conflict resolution algorithms. If a COPY, INSERT, or UPDATE command specifies a different conflict resolution algorithm, then that algorithm is used in place of the default algorithm specified in the CREATE TABLE statement. See the section ON CONFLICT for additional information.
CHECK constraints are now supported and enforced.
There are no arbitrary limits on the number of columns or on the number of constraints in a table. As well, there is no arbitrary limit on the amount of data in a row.
The CREATE TABLE AS form defines the table to be the result set of a query. The names of the table columns are the names of the columns in the result.
The exact text of each CREATE TABLE statement is stored in the sqlite_master table. Every time the database is opened, all CREATE TABLE statements are read from the sqlite_master table and used to regenerate QDB's internal representation of the table layout. If the original command was a CREATE TABLE AS, then an equivalent CREATE TABLE statement is synthesized and stored in sqlite_master in place of the original command. The text of CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statements is stored in the sqlite_temp_master table.
If the optional IF NOT EXISTS clause is present and another table with the same name aleady exists, then this command becomes a no-op.
Tables are removed using the DROP TABLE statement.