Driver for Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, and RT2500USB wireless adapters
io-pkt-variant -d ral ... &
io-pkt-variant -d ural ... &
where variant is one of v4, v4-hc, or
The devnp-ral.so driver supports PCI/CardBus wireless adapters based on the
Ralink RT2500, RT2501, and RT2600 chipsets.
The devnp-ural.so driver supports USB 2.0
wireless adapters based on the Ralink RT2500USB chipset.
These are ported NetBSD drivers;
their interface names are in the form ralX and
uralX, where X is an integer.
The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink.
It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 or RT2570(USB)
MAC/BBP and an RT2525 or RT2526(USB) radio transceiver.
The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an
RT2527 radio transceiver. This chipset provides support for the IEEE
802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows
scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.
The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP
and an RT2529 radio transceiver.
This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology with multiple antennas to extend the
operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher throughput.
These drivers can operate in these modes:
- BSS mode
- Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when associating with an access point,
through which all traffic passes. This mode is the default.
- IBSS mode
- Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode.
This is the standardized method of operating without an access point.
Stations associate with a service set.
However, actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.
- Host AP
- In this mode, the driver acts as an access point (base station) for other cards.
- Monitor mode
- In this mode, the driver is able to receive packets without
associating with an access point.
This disables the internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have access to, or to scan
for access points.
The devnp-ral.so and devnp-ural.so drivers
support software WEP.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the de facto encryption standard for wireless networks.
It can be typically configured in one of three modes: no encryption; 40-bit encryption; or
Unfortunately, due to serious weaknesses in WEP protocol it is strongly recommended
that it not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communication.
WEP is not enabled by default.
You can also use the driver in conjunction with
to provide WPA / WPA2 encryption.
You can use
to configure the devnp-ral.so and devnp-ural.so
drivers at runtime:
- bssid bssid
- Set the desired BSSID.
- Unset the desired BSSID.
The interface automatically selects a BSSID in this mode, which is the default.
- chan n
- Set the channel (radio frequency) to be used by the driver based
on the given channel ID n.
- Unset the desired channel to be used by the driver.
The driver automatically selects a channel in this mode, which is the default.
- media media
- These drivers support the following media types:
- autoselect — enable autoselection of the media type and options.
- DS1 — 802.11b DS 1Mbps operation.
- DS2 — 802.11b DS 2Mbps operation.
- DS5 — 802.11b DS 5.5Mbps operation.
- DS11 — 802.11b DS 11Mbps operation.
- OFDM6 — 802.11a/g OFDM 6Mbps operation.
- OFDM9 — 802.11a/g OFDM 9Mbps operation.
- OFDM12 — 802.11a/g OFDM 12Mbps operation.
- OFDM18 — 802.11a/g OFDM 18Mbps operation.
- OFDM24 — 802.11a/g OFDM 24Mbps operation.
- OFDM36 — 802.11a/g OFDM 36Mbps operation.
- OFDM48 — 802.11a/g OFDM 48Mbps operation.
- OFDM54 — 802.11a/g OFDM 54Mbps operation.
- mediaopt opts
- These drivers support the following media options:
- hostap — select Host AP operation.
- ibss — select IBSS operation.
- monitor — select monitor mode.
- -mediaopt opts
- Disable the specified media options on the driver and return it
to the default mode of operation (BSS).
- mode mode
- These drivers support the following modes:
- 11a — force 802.11a operation.
- 11b — force 802.11b operation.
- 11g — force 802.11g operation.
- nwid id
- Set the network ID.
The id can either be any text string up to
32 characters in length, or a series of hexadecimal digits up to
An empty ID string (the default) allows the interface to connect to
any available access points.
Note that network ID is synonymous with Extended Service Set ID (ESSID).
- nwkey key
- Enable WEP encryption using the specified key.
The key can either be a string, a series of hexadecimal digits (preceded by
0x), or a set of keys of the form n:k1,k2,k3,k4, where
n specifies which of the keys to use for transmitted packets,
and the four keys, k1 through k4, are configured as WEP keys.
If a set of keys is specified, a comma (,) within the
key must be escaped with a backslash.
|| If you use multiple keys, their order must be the same within the network.
These drivers can use both 40-bit (5 characters or 10 hexadecimal
digits) or 104-bit (13 characters or 26 hexadecimal digits) keys.
- Disable WEP encryption. This is the default mode of operation.
||Native io-pkt and ported NetBSD drivers don't put entries
into the /dev/io-net namespace, so a
command for such an entry won't work properly in buildfiles or scripts.
instead; for example, instead of waitfor /dev/io-net/ral0, use
if_up -p ral0.|